• Salmonella spp. is not a pathogen which affects fish, although these organisms are asymptomatic hosts which, do not show signs of infection they can transmit the bacteria undetected through the food chain and pose a threat to human health (Fernandes et al. 2018).
  • Adding 0.8% Salkil to fishmeal was shown to inhibit Salmonella spp. growth, ensuring safety for use in feed formulations. Salkil is a free flowing granular product which means application and user safety is improved compared to liquid propionic acid.


  • Propionic acid has proven to reduce Salmonella spp. counts in feed, and identified by the International Fishmeal & Oil Manufactures Association (EFSA, 2008; IFOMA, 2000).
  • Salkil is a key product within Anpario’s Acid Based Eubiotics (ABE) range, and is composed of a propionic and formic acid blend formulated onto a unique mineral carrier system.
  • The study aimed to determine if the efficacy of Salkil in reducing Salmonella spp. content was superior to inclusion of straight propionic acid.

Fishmeal was artificially infected with S. senftenberg to obtain a Salmonella spp. count of 103 to 104 per gram. Samples of fishmeal were subjected to the following treatments and an untreated infected fishmeal sample served as the control. Full trial protocol is available upon request.

  1. Control – no treatment
  2. Propionic acid included at 5kg/t (0.5%)
  3. Salkil included at 4kg/t (0.4%)
  4. Salkil included at 8kg/t (0.8%)

  • Salkil and propionic acid resulted in an accelerated Salmonella spp. reduction compared to the control.
  • Including 0.8% Salkil into contaminated fishmeal for 3 weeks reduced Salmonella spp. to 490 MPN per gram compared to propionic acid at 1545 MPN per gram over the same time period.
  • The carrier in Salkil possesses benefits that helps to prolong the activity and stability of propionic acid in raw materials and is beneficial when feeds are pelleted under the high temperatures associated with aqua feed production.
  • Similarly Salkil could also reduce Salmonella spp. contamination in vegetable and oil seed protein used in aqua diets including tilapia.