• The EU has classified formic acid as a bacterial decontaminating agent (including, but not limited to Salmonella) to improve feed hygiene (Feed additive Register 2017/940).
  • The main active ingredient in pHorce, formic acid, is approved for enhancing feed hygiene and feed preservation.
  • pHorce in this study reduced contamination of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) in poultry meat and bone meal at all inclusion rates.


  • Both Salmonella and E. cloacae belong to the bacteria family of Enterobacteriaceae and are potentially harmful pathogenic bacteria.
  • One of the possible routes by which Salmonella can enter the food chain is through animal feedstuffs (Defra, 2009) and raw materials. Salmonella causes salmonellosis in humans and can also cause huge economical and ethical losses throughout the food chain. Poultry meat and bone meal (PMBM) is an important animal protein that is commonly used in pet food manufacturing.
  • Acid Based Eubiotics (ABE), formaldehyde, bleach, hydrogen peroxide are examples of chemical mitigants. Within the EU, only the ABE class of chemical mitigants are authorised for use in animal feed to help minimise the risk of bacterial contamination.
  • pHorce is one of Anpario’s leading ABE, containing high levels of formic and propionic acid on a specialist carrier.



An independent trial was conducted at Abbott Analytical, UK to test the antibacterial efficacy of pHorce using the standard protocol. Five inclusion rates of pHorce were assessed, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 kg/t were added to PMBM, artificially contaminated with S. Enteritidis and E. cloacae (residual count of minimum 105 cfu/g). Bacterial counts (cfu/g) were measured at 0, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours after product application (inoculation) and incubation at 36°C ± 1°C.

  • pHorce is an effective bacteria mitigant against S. Enteritidis and E. cloacae at very high challenge levels within animal protein products.
  • The effectiveness, inclusion, and contact time of pHorce is dependent on the type of animal protein and the bacterial load, therefore regular physical and microbial analysis of raw materials is recommended.


total count of S. Enteritidis

Figure 1. Total count of S. Enteritidis (x1000 cfu/g) (A) and total count of E. cloacae (x1000 cfu/g) (B).

Reduction of S. Enteritidis

Figure 2. Reduction of S. Enteritidis (log10 cfu/g) (C) and reduction of E. cloacae (log10 cfu/g) (D).